Bio transformations & Xenobiotics



Biotransformation is the process that metabolize substances entering the body, such as drugs. It is the metabolic conversion of xenobiotic and endogenous chemicals to more water-soluble compounds. It is also known as Detoxification reaction. Generally, the physical properties of a xenobiotic are changed from lipophilicity (absorption) to hydrophilicity (excretion). Xenobiotic biotransformation is accomplished by a limited number of enzymes with broad substrate specificities. Lipid soluble drugs are poorly excreted in the urine.  They tend to store in fat and/or circulate until they are converted (phase I biotransformation) to more water soluble metabolites or metabolites that conjugate (phase II biotransformation) with water soluble substances. Xenobiotics are biotransferred through any of the following reactions: Oxidation (Drugs, heavy metals), Reduction (Cosmetic Chemicals, heavy metals) and Hydrolysis (Drugs).

  • Microbial bio transformations
  • Metabolic engineering and biocatalytic applications
  • Metabolomics as a global biochemical approach to drug response and disease
  • Challenges and Opportunities of xenobiotics in metabolomics
  • Profiling the reactive metabolites of xenobiotics using metabolomic technologies

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